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SAUSAGE FORMULATIONS
Thanks to Professor Robert E. Rust, Iowa State University and Jay Hill
 

Products from Basic loaf Emulsion Base emulsion:
20 lb. lean beef 80/20
50 lb. lean pork 80/20
30 lb. pork jowls or 50/50 pork trim
20 lb. ice or water
2 lb. salt
0.3. lb. phosphate
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
4 oz. ground black pepper
1 oz. ground mace
1 oz. coriander
3/4 oz. ginger
1/2 oz. cardamom
4 oz. paprika
1 oz. MSG (optional)
 

1. chop lean meats with salt, cure, erythorbate and ice or water and phosphate
2. Add seasonings and fat meats chop to 55 F.
3. Add one of the following for the product specified
 

BIERSCHINKEN
Use a ratio of 35% emulsion to 65% lean pork (ham) chunks (approx. 1 in. dices). These should be precured using a basic pickle.
Add the following spices for each 100 lb. of emulsion/ham mixture.
 2 1/2 oz. ground black pepper
1/4 oz. mace
1/4 oz. ginger


1. mix emulsion, lean pork cubes and spices. Stuff into molds or moisture proof casings.
 2. Water or steam cook at a temperature of 165°F to 160° F internal.
 3. Chill immediately.
 

WILDSCHWEIN PASTETE
Use a ratio of 50% emulsion to 50% lean pork cubes (1 in.). These should be precured using a standard pickle.
 

1. Coat the lean pork cubes with cured beef blood (cured with 156 ppm nitrite). Let stand in cooler overnight.
 2. Heat pork cubes in steam jacketed kettle until blood begins to coagulate. Rinse off excess blood with water. Drain cubes and cool.
 3. Mix cured pork cubes with the following seasoning for 60 lb. of cubes.

2 oz. ground black pepper
1/4 oz. ground mace

 4. Mix cured pork cubes with base emulsion In a 50-50 ratio. Stuff in molds or moisture proof casings and water or steam cook at 165 F. to 160 F. internal.
 

Cure for Precured Sausage items
All precured items (tongues, picnics jowls, ham cubes, etc.) are cured with the following pickle at the rate of 10%. Larger items are pumped and tumbled (2 min. on, 60 min. rest) for 24 hours. Small items are tumbled only 2 hours (20 min on, 40 mitt, rest) followed by 22 hours 2 min on, 60 min. rest.).
20 lb. salt
5 lb. sugar
3 lb. phosphate
2.5 oz. sodium nitrite
8 oz. sodium erythorbate
71.5 lb. Water
 

JAGDWURST


50 lb. precured ham cubes 3/4” dice 

25 lb. 80/20 pork trim
25 lb. 50/50 pork trim
1 1/2 oz. ground black pepper
1/2 oz. ground mace
1/2 oz. ground ginger
1 oz. ground coriander
1 lb. salt
1/8 oz. sodium nitrite
7/16 oz. sodium erythorbate
10 lb. ice water


1. Pre-cure ham cubes using standard cure.
2. Chop lean pork with salt, cure and water. Chop to 45 F.
3. Add 50/50 pork and spices. Chop to 55 F.
4. Mix in ham cubes.
5. Stuff into large diameter moisture proof casings and steam or water cook to 155 F. internal
  
Bavaria Bierwurst
Make beef emulsion of 90/10 lean beef to which salt (2.5%) water (20%), nitrite (156 ppm) and erythorbate (550 ppm) have been added. 05% phosphate may also be used.
 

1. To 40 lb. of this beef emulsion add:


30 lb. 80/20 pork (3/8 in. grind)
30 lb. 30/70 pork (or pork jowls) (3/16 in. grind)
(These may be ground or added to chopper after emulsion is made)
 

2. Add the following seasonings:

1.2 lb. salt
4.25 grams nitrite (156 ppm)
14.75 grams erythorbate (550 ppm)
3 1/4 oz. ground black pepper
1oz. ground coriander
1oz. ground nutmeg
1 3/4 oz. whole mustard seed
1 oz. garlic powder
 

3. Stuff in molds or moisture proof casings.
4. Steam or water cook at 165 F. to 160° F internal.

Sulze
25 lb. each of cured pork snouts, pork lips, pork tongues and lean shoulder meat (cured in a standard ham pickle)


3 oz. ground white pepper
1.5 oz. ground caraway
3 oz. ground coriander
1 oz. ground nutmeg
Salt and vinegar taste
Diced pickles and pimentos
Gelatin
 

1. After meat has been cured, simmer in enough water to cover until tender. Meat should remain in chunks. Cooking meat in nets is preferable.
2. Remove from cooking tank, rinse with hot water and chill,
3. Dice chilled meat in pieces of desired size and rinse with 180 F. water to remove all excess grease which will cause cloudiness in the finished product.
4. Mix diced meat with pickles, pimentos and spice. Taste product to correct flavoring for salt.
5. Prepare gelatin solution using approximately 1 lb. of gelatin to 1 gal. of water. Clarified cooking broth may be used for the liquid.
6. Add gelatin solution to meat, spice, etc. Add vinegar to taste
7 Place in molds and chill overnight.
8. Vacuum package.
 

Thuringer Blood Sausage
55 lb. picnics cured and cooked
20 lb. jowls cured and cooked.
5 lb. pork liver (add 6 gm 6.25% nitrite cure & 14 gm salt)
10 lb. blood (cured with 156 ppm nitrite)
10 lb. pork rinds cured & cooked
4 3/4 oz ground black pepper
4 3/4 oz. ground marjoram
1 3/4 oz. ground allspice
1 oz. ground cloves
2 lb. fresh onions (2 oz. onion powder)
 

1. Cure and cook picnics and jowls. Cut into cubes, about 1/2 inch.
2. Cook pork rinds, grind through 1/8 in. plate with liver, and while still hot, mix with warm (135 F) blood,
3. Mix spices with cubed ingredients and mix well with rinds, liver and blood. Fill into wide caliber impermeable casings.
4. Water or steam cook at 165 F. to 155 F internal and cool in cold water.
 

Non-Specific Loaf Formulation
100 lb. beef/pork formulated to 40% fat
48 lb. water or ice
11 lb. whey or other milk protein source
4.4 lbs. soy isolate
2.6 lb. salt
2 lb. dextrose
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground mace
1 oz. ground coriander
1 oz. ground cardamom
1 oz. ground ginger
4 oz. paprika
 

1. Chop lean neat with salt cure and one half the ice or water to 40 F.
2. Add soy, milk proteins, fat meats and other ingredients. Chop to 60 F.
3. Blend in pickles, olives, etc. for desired red loaf,
4. Stuff in fibrous casings and process to 155 F. internal
 

Farmer Style Liver Sausage
30 lb. pork liver
40 lb. 50/50 pork trim
15 lb. pork jowls or fresh pork bellies
15 lb. 80/20 pork trim
1.5 lb. salt
3 1/4 oz. ground white pepper
1 1/2 ground ginger
3 oz. ground marjoram
1 1/2 oz. ground nutmeg
1 1/4 ground allspice
1 lb. fried onions or
1 oz. toasted onion powder
 

.1. Blanch pork liver in hot water, and then grind through 1/4 inch plate.
.2. Precook pork and grind through a 1/4 inch plate.
3. Add cooked pork to pork livers and mix with 10% cooking broth.
4. Add dry ingredients.
5. Stuff into appropriate liver sausage casings and steam or water cook at 170 F. to 175 F. until an internal temperature of 1650F is reached.
6. Chill in cold water or ice water bath. If processed in double walled bungs, these may be cold smoked to desired color.
 

Spreadable Liver Sausage (Pate)
30 lb. pork liver
50 lb. pork jowls
20 lb. lean pork trim 80/20
1.5 lb. salt
4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground allspice
2 oz. ground marjoram
1 oz. ground cardamom
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
 

1. Blanch livers in hot water and top with cure until bubbly.
2. In a cooking cutter, cook and chop jowls and pork to 155 F. then chill to below 120 F.
3. Add liver, salt and seasoning and chop to a fine emulsion
4. Stuff in appropriate casings and water or steam cook at 170 F - 175 F. to 165 F. internal temperature
5. Chill in cold water or ice water bath.
6. If a smoked flavor is desired, smoke flavoring may be added or pork trimmings may be given a light smoke. Bacon ends and pieces or smoked jowls may be substituted.
 

Braunschweiger Liver Sausage
50 lb. pork livers
10 lb. lean pork trim 80/20
10 lb. bacon ends or smoked jowls
30 lb. pork jowls
2 lb. salt
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
3 1/2 oz. ground white pepper
1 1/2 oz. ground ginger
2 oz. ground marjoram
1/2 oz. ground cardamom
1 oz. ground allspice
2 oz. onion powder (or equivalent in fresh onions)
Optional ingredients:
3 lb. calcium reduced nonfat at dried milk
2-4 lb. water
 

1. Presoak livers in salt brine for 1 hour. Rinse with fresh water.
2. Chop livers with cure and spices until bubbly. Add nonfat dried milk and water (or ice) if these ingredients are to be included.
3. Add pork trim, bacon, and jowls (all ground through a 3/16 plate) and chop to 55 F. Add salt near end of chopping period.
4. Stuff in appropriate casing and water or steam cook at 170 F. to an Internal temperature of 155 F.
5. Chill in cold water or ice water bath.
 

Cooked Bratwurst (Coarse)
100 lb. pork trim (30% fat)
20 lb. ice or water
2 1/4 lb. salt
3 1/2 oz. ground white pepper.
3 1/2 oz. ground nutmeg
3 1/2 oz. ground marjoram
 

1. Grind pork through 1/4 inch plate and preblend with the salt and one half of the water.
2. Chop one third to one half of the preblend with the remaining ice or water to a fine emulsion (not over 45 F.).
3. Add spices and remainder of preblend and chop a few more revolutions to mix and to reduce to desired particle size.
4. Stuff in appropriate casings (approximately 30 mm).
5. Steam or water cook at 170°F to internal temperature of 155 F.
 

Debrecziner
30 lb. 80/20 beef
35 lb. 80/20 pork
35 lb. 50/50 pork
2.5 lb. salt
20 lb. water or ice
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
3 1/2 oz. ground black pepper
3 1/2 oz. ground caraway seed
1 oz. garlic powder
 

1. Chop beef with salt, cure, erythorbate, and ice or water to produce a fine emulsion.
2. Grind pork through 3/15 inch (5 mm) plate, and mix with emulsions and spices. If chopper is used, add pork and spices to emulsion and chop to desired consistency.
3. Stuff in approximately 24/26 mm casings and process in smokehouse with smoke to internal temperature of 160 F. (71 C).
 

Cooked Bratwurst (Weiswurst)
65 lb. 80/20 pork trim
35 lb. 30/50 pork trim
20 lb. ice or water
2 1/4 lb. salt
3 1/2 oz. sugar      
3 1/4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground mace
1/4 oz. ground cardamom
2 oz. onion powder
1 oz. dried parsley
1. Add salt, water, meat preblend may be used - hold 24 hours,
2. Chop lean meat with salt and ice to 45 F. Add fat meat, spices, and sugar and chop to 55 F.
3. Stuff in appropriate casings (approximately 30 mm).
4. Water or steam cook at 170 F. to temperature of 155 F.
 

Summer Sausage (Cooked)
60 lb. beef (proportions of beef and pork may vary. Should equal approximately 30% fat}
40 lb. pork
3 lb. salt
12 oz. dextrose
6 oz. coarse ground black pepper
1 oz. whole mustard seed
1/2 oz. ground nutmeg
2 oz. ground coriander
1/2 oz. ground allspice
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
1 oz. garlic powder (optional)
Lactic acid starter culture for summer sausage capable of fermentation at approximately. 100 F.
 

1. Grind beef through 1/8 in. plate and pork through 1/8 inch or 3/16 inch plate. Maintain temperatures at 30 F. or less in meat products.
2. Blend with salt, sugar, spices, and cure. Add starter culture last according to manufacturer’s instructions. Maintain low temperatures - below 36 F.3. Stuff in appropriate dry sausage casings (animal or manufactured). Beef middles are a traditional casing.
4. Ferment at 95° to 100 F., 90 to 95% Relative Humidity to a pH of 4.8 to 4.9. Surface color should be red at end of fermentation. If not, reduce humidity slightly near end.
5. Raise temperature of smokehouse to 145 F. to 150 F., 60% to 70% R.H. and apply smoke. If internal temperature of product is not up to 145 F, raise temperature of smokehouse and bring internal temperature of product to 145 F.
6. Remove from smokehouse and allow to cool slightly at room temperature before moving to chill cooler.
7. For a reasonably shelf stable product at non refrigerated temperatures, it will be necessary to modify schedule to dry product to lose about 25% of its weight.
8. For a non-cooked summer sausage, follow same schedule as for Thuringer Cervelat using all beef or certified Trichina free pork trimmings.

Thuringer Cervelat
50 lb. boneless cow meat (15% fat)
10 lb beef hearts (optional; bone less cow may be used in place of beef hearts)
30 lb. pork trimmings (20% fat)
10 lb pork trimmings (50% fat)
2.8 lb. salt
1.0 lb. dextrose
1.0 lb. Sugar
4 oz. coarse ground black pepper
2 oz whole black pepper
1 whole mustard coriander
1/2 oz. ground nutmeg
1/2 oz. ground allspice
1/4 oz sodium nitrite
 Acid starter culture capable of fermenting at 80 F.
 

1. Grind beef through 1/8 inch plate and pork through 1/8 inch, or  3/16 inch plate. Maintain at 30 F. or below,
2. Blend with salt, sugars, spices and cure. After blending these ingredients, add culture according to manufacturer's directions. Maintain low temperatures--below 36 F.
3. Stuff appropriate animal or manufactured casing - traditionally double walled sewed bungs.
4. Place in smokehouse at 60 F. with : 85% to 95% Relative Humidity and ferment to a 4.6. Smoke may be applied near end of fermentation or, following a brief dry-off period, may be applied during heating.
5. Raise smokehouse temperatures to about 165 F. 40% to 50% R, H., and heat to an internal temperature of 120 F.
6. allow to cool at room temperature 4 to 6 hours before moving to chill cooler
7. For a typical shelf stable (at non-refrigerated temperatures) product, this product should be allowed to dry slightly to reach an MP ratio of 3.7:1.
 

Westphalian Cervelat
100 lb. cow beef (25 to 30% fat)
3 lb. salt
12 oz dextrose
4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground cardamom
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture capable of fermentation at 75 F. or less
 

1. Coarse grind beef through 3/4 inch or 1 inch plate — freeze to about 20°F2. Chop beef to the consistency of coarse sand. Fat particles should maintain their distinct definition if meat is at proper temperature.
3. Add salt, spices cure and starter culture.
4. Ferment at 75 F. and 95% R.H. to a pH of less than 5.0.
5. Apply cold smoke (this product is usually heavily smoked).
6. Dry at temperatures not over 65°F with humidity to allow appropriate drying. Dry to allow 30% weight loss.


Beef Stick or Beef Cervelat
100 lb. cow meat (25 to 30% fat)
3 lb. salt
12 oz. dextrose
5 1/2 oz. ground black pepper
6 oz. ground coriander
4 oz. ground mustard
1/2 oz. garlic powder (optional)
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture capable of fermentation at 80 F or less.
 

1. Grind beef through a 1/8 inch or 3/32 inch plate. Keep at 300F or below.
2. Mix with salt, dextrose and spices.
3. Add starter culture according to manufacturer's instructions.
4 Stuff in 15-20 mm collagen casings for: beef sticks or in appropriate larger casing for beef Cervelat.
5 Ferment in smokehouse at 80 F, 85% 90% Relative Humidity to pH of 4.6 to 4.8. Allow to develop good red surface color
6. Apply smoke at temperature not greater than 80 F.
7. Reduce temperatures to 650F and 80% Relative Humidity after completion of smoke cycle. Dry at temperature not over 65 F with humidity to allow appropriate drying.
 

Chinese Sausage
70 lb. 80/20 pork
30 lb. 50/50 pork
1.7 lb. salt
2 lb soy sauce
4 lb. sugar
4 oz. white pepper
2 oz. Chinese 5 spice seasoning
1 oz. MSG
3 lb. neutral grain spirits or rice wine
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate or ascorbate
 

1. Dissolve spices in alcohol (wine.).
2. Grind lean meat through 1/4 in. plate and fat through 1/4 In. or 3/8 In. plate.
3. Mix lean meat with cure and erythorbate for 5 minutes
4. Add remaining ingredients and fat pork and mix.
5. Stuff into approx. 20 mm fresh meat collagen or natural casings and link.
6. Heat in smokehouse for 1 hr. at 120 F and then raise temperature to reach internal of 140 F. Hold at 140 F for 15 minutes
7. Remove and air dry for 2 days to lose 30% of original weight.
 

LANDJAGER
50 lb. 90/10 boneless cow beef
50 lb. 50/50 boneless pork trim*
3 lb. salt
9 oz. dextrose
5 oz. ground black pepper
4 oz. ground caraway
2.5 oz. ground coriander
 1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture capable low temperature fermentation.
 

1. Chop or grind beef through 1/8 in. plate; pork through 3/16 in. plate.
2. Mix salt, dextrose, spices, cure and, finally, starter culture.
3. Stuff into approximately 30 mm hog or collagen casings. Links should paired and pressed into form to a flat link, 3/8 inch thick, 1 1/4 inches wide and 5 1/2 inch long.
4. Pack the links into pans about 3 layers deep. Pack tightly side by side.
5. Allow to cure at 45°F for 3 to 4 days or until firm.
6. Hang on smoke sticks and give cold smoke at no higher than 65 F.
7. Dry if needed after smoking to lose about 30% in weight
*NOTE: Pork in this formula should be certified Trichina free or processed according to Meat and Poultry Inspection Regulations 318.10.
 

TEEWURST
20 lb. 80% lean beef
60 lb. 80% lean pork* (certified trichina free)
14 lb. smoked fatbacks
6 lb. 50% lean pork
3 lb. salt
4 oz. ground white pepper
2 oz ground paprika
3/4 oz. ground cardamom
4 oz. dextrose
1 oz. ground ginger
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture capable of fermenting at 75 F according to manufacturer’s directions.

(Optional 4 oz. rum with cracked juniper berries. Add cracked juniper berries to rum and let stand for 4 to 5 days. Strain out juniper berries before adding.)


1. Grind beef through 2 mm (1/8 inch) plate.
2. Mix ground beef with pork and grind through 2 mm (1/8 inch) plate.
3. Mix all ingredients and grind once more through 2 mm (1/8 inch) plate.

—Or—

1. Use silent cutter and chop beef.2. Add pork and finally back fat and bacon trim chopped to fine paste.
3 Add dry ingredients at mixing speed.
 The finished meat mix is not supposed to bind; therefore, add salt and other dry ingredients at final stage only and avoid over mixing and/or chopping.
 4. Stuff in 40 to 50 mm diameter cellulose casings or beef rounds and hold for 24 hours at 45 F to 50 F.
5. Cold smoke at 65 F to 68°F for 2 to 5 days. Better quality product is smoked for a longer time.
 

JERKY
100 lb. extra lean beef trim
2 lb. 4 oz salt
8 oz. ground black pepper
1 oz. ground allspice
1/8 oz. sodium nitrite
1/2 oz. garlic powder (optional)
2-4 oz. liquid smoke (optional)
 

1.Trim away any excess fat and connective tissue.
2. Grind through a 1/4 in. plate.
3. Mix with all ingredients until sticky.
4. Place mixture on shallow trays or pans in a rectangular block about 1-2 Inches wide and 12-18 inches long.
Square the corners as well as possible.


-Or-


Stuff loosely into casings and press firmly into oval shape (may retain round shape if desired.).
5. Freeze, and temper back to a point where the surface is tacky.
6. Slice into 1/8 in. thick strips and place on drying racks.
7. Dry (with light smoke if liquid is not used) to desired dryness (Moisture: Protein of 0.75:1) using 70% to 75% Relative Humidity
 

PEPPERONI
30 lb. 90/10 boneless cow beef
15 lb. 50/50 boneless beef, plates
25 lb. 50/50 boneless pork*
20 lb. beef cheeks
10 lb. 80/20 boneless pork*
3 lb. salt
1 lb. dextrose
Pepperoni spice
1/8 oz. sodium nitrite
7/8 oz. sodium erythorbate
Lactic acid starter culture
 

1. Grind 50/50 pork and beef through 3/16 in. plate, all other meats through 1/8 in. plate.
2. Mix with salt dextrose, spices, cure and erythorbate. Add starter culture according to manufacture's procedure. Stuff into appropriate casings.
3. Ferment at 70° to 80°F and 80% to 90% Relative Humidity to a pH of 4.7.
4. Give a light smoke, preferably after surface red color has developed
5. Dry at 60°F and 78% Relative Humidity to a Moisture: Protein ratio of 1.6: 1.
 *NOTE:
Pork in this formula should certified Trichina free or processed according to Meat and Poultry Inspection Regulations 318 .10
 

GENOA SALAMI
100 lb. pork trim* (should equal 25% fat)
3 lb. salt
9 oz. dextrose
4 oz. ground black pepper
2 oz. whole black pepper
1/2 oz. garlic powder
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture capable of fermentation at 80 F or less.
 

1. Grind pork through 3/16 inch plate (or chop). Maintain temperatures of 30°F or less.
2. Mix with salt, cure, and spices.
3. Add starter culture according to manufacturer's instructions and complete mixing.
4. Stuff in appropriate casing for Genoa Salami.
5. Ferment at 75 F to 80 F, 85% to 90% Relative Humidity to a pH of 4.8 to 4.9.
6. Dry at 65 F beginning with 85% Relative Humidity dropping to 80% Relative Humidity or other appropriate humidity to prevent case hardening but still allowing sufficient drying.
*Note: Pork in this formula should be certified Trichina free or processed according to Meat and Poultry Regulations 318.10
 

POLNICHE METTWURST
60 lb. 80/20 pork*
40 lb. 50/50 pork*
3 lb. salt
8 oz. dextrose
4 oz. ground white pepper
1 oz. ground caraway
1 oz. ground marjoram
1/2 oz. garlic powder
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Lactic acid starter culture according to manufacturer’s instructions. 
1. Chop lean pork to fine texture.
2. Add 50/50 pork and coarse chop.
3. Mix with other ingredients.
4. Stuff into approximately 75 mm casings and ferment at 75 F
5. Give a cold smoke,
6. Dry to approximately 28% weight loss.
* NOTE:
Pork in this formula should be certified Trichina free or processed according to Meat and Poultry Inspection regulations 318.10.


PLOCKWURST
30 lb. 85/15 beef
30 lb. 80/20 pork*
20 lb. 50/50 pork*
3 lb. salt
8 oz. dextrose
5 oz. ground pepper
6.5 oz. rum (Juniper berries should be soaked in the rum for several days and then strained out)
1/4 oz. sodium nitrite
Starter culture according to manufac­turers instructions.
 

1. Beef and 1/3 of the lean pork should be chopped fine.
2. Add remaining pork and coarse chop.
3. Mix with other ingredients.
4. Stuff into approximately 60-75 mm casings and ferment at 75 F
5. Give a cold smoke.
6. Dry until weight loss equals 22% to 25%.
*NOTE:
Pork in this formula should be certified Trichina free or processed according to Meat and Poultry Inspection Regulations 318.10